May 31, 2009

Epidemic Influenza

By Oliver Wen & Alan Lin

Influenza/ˎɪnflu′enzə / [uncountable]

►an infectious disease that is like a very bad cold

►= flu

►a common illness that makes you feel very tired and weak, gives you a sore throat, and makes you cough and have to clear your nose a lot

--Steven's still in bed with flu.

--She's got the flu.

--I couldn't go because I had flu.

--Flu shots are recommended for people 55 and older.

Flu Types

˙There are three basic types of flu viruses: A, B, and C.

˙Influenza A is divided into subtypes based upon two proteins found on the virus itself: hemagglutinin [ˌhiməˈglutənən] (H, 紅血球凝集素) and the neuraminidase [ˌnjurəˈmɪˌdes ] (N, 神經胺酸水解酶). The flu pandemic of 1918 was a type A flu.

˙A-type influenza affects both animals and humans.

˙B-types affect only humans.

˙C-types result in mild respiratory(呼吸的) illnesses and are not believed to cause flu outbreaks.

˙A and B cause the majority of the flu seen today, although there is a C type, which is much less severe.

Subtypes of flu A viruses

˙H1N1 (Swine flu)
˙H5N1 (Bird flu)

New H1N1 Flu

˙This new virus is very different from what normally circulates in North American pigs.
˙It has two genes from flu viruses that normally circulate in pigs in Europe and Asia and avian(鳥類的) genes and human genes.

Epidemic /ˌɛpɪˈdɛmɪk / [countable]

►a large number of cases of a disease that happen at the same time

--50 to 100 million people died during the flu epidemic of 1918.

--An epidemic of hepatitis (肝炎)is terrible.

Epidemic /ˌɛpɪˈdɛmɪk / [countable]

►a sudden increase in the number of times that something bad happens

--The recent epidemic of car thefts has been blamed on bored teenagers.

Epidemic /ˌɛpɪˈdɛmɪk / adjective [only before noun]

►of disease or anything resembling a disease

--The epidemic disease could be wiped out.

►attacking or affecting many individuals in a community or a population at the same time

--Epidemic Influenza A H1N1 Spreads in 20 Countries.

--Violent crime is reaching epidemic proportions in some cities.

--Buying goods on the installment plan has become epidemic in recent years.

►= epidemical

Epidemical/ɛpəˈdɛmɪkl/ adjective

--The swine flu is epidemical, and its symptom is similar to influenza.


►the study of the way diseases spread, and how to control them

--Epidemiology is the compulsory credit of medical students.


--The epidemiologist who is the representative of Taiwan suffered a protest abruptly.

Epidemiological/ˈɛpɪˌdimɪrˈlɑdʒɪkl/ adjective

--Recently, the HINI flu has become an outbreak in Japan, however, the domestic epidemiological experts were resentful about the quarantine and efforts of Japan.

May 9, 2009

Conquer (Word of the Day, 2009/5/6)

By C.F. Hsu
conquer (v)
1. Defeat or overcome (enemies, bad habits, etc)
e.g. conquer the enemy
e.g. conquer bad habits
e.g. conquer passions

2. Take possession of by force
e.g. conquer a country

conqueror (n) 
One who conquers (征服者)

conquest (n) 
1. Conquering (e.g. a country and its people)
2. Something got by conquering (戰利品)

Reference: Toastmaster March 2009
1. The Courage to Conquer the Next Step
By Jana Barnhill (International President)
2. How I Conquered My Contest Fears
By Angie Palmer